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1978年以来中国信访工作研究

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【作者】 张修成

【机构】 中共中央党校

【摘要】 中国信访制度在发扬民主、了解民情、化解矛盾、解除民忧、公民监督和提供决策参考信息等方面发挥了重要作用,但是自20世纪90年代中期以来,信访活动所涉及的内容及其所造成的影响却突破了中华人民共和国信访制度设计者的初衷。以较大规模群体访和表达形式激烈的个体访为主要标志的持续十几年的信访高潮至今仍然没有明显的落潮迹象,成为影响社会和谐的主要因素。它不仅是部分公民的难解之痛,也是许多政府机构挥之不去的心病。特别是进入新世纪以来,与信访相关联的一系列问题日益成为社会关注的焦点和难题。从中共中央、国务院到基层镇村和企业,社会各阶层为了寻求破解之道而绞尽脑汁,对信访工作的强调和投入前所未有,摸索的方法层出不穷,而这一切未能有效遏制信访总量高位运行的态势,现实所呈现的效果并不尽如人意。不仅信访工作实践存在误区,而且理论研究务虚空泛,缺乏应有的高度和深度。本文着力于信访史的纵横考察,落笔于威海区域信访个案的特色研究,以期阐明威海信访历史和现状并把握信访工作的来龙去脉,即它们到底是如何发生、如何处理的,有哪些经验和教训,重点探讨若干关键的信访难点,从而澄清一些模糊、错误的但却普遍存在的观念和做法,提出一些对策建议以供决策参考,同时接受实践的严格检验。首章简要回顾中国和威海改革开放前的信访历史。中国有两千多年的封建、半封建半殖民地社会史。在漫长的君权至上时代,封建皇帝言出法随,老百姓有了冤屈不得伸雪,便把希望寄托给最高统治者,告御状成为古往今来中国人争取公平的基本模式。1949年前威海市信访活动主要呈现两个特点:英国在强租威海卫期间,其殖民当局的行政长官将洋法律与中国传统文化相结合,治理取得了一定成效;抗日战争胜利结束,威海卫市成为解放区后,人民调解工作开展得有声有色。中华人民共和国成立后的信访制度与中国历史上长期存在的告御状有着传承关系。中国共产党第一代领导集体是中华人民共和国信访工作和信访理论的奠基者,其设计的信访制度是中国政治制度的组成部分,影响深远。信访制度在发挥一定作用的同时,也与1957年后20余年跌宕起伏的政治形势休戚相关,由此可以反观中国民主政治制度建设的经验和教训。第二章所阐述的基本观点是:1978年至20世纪80年代末是中国信访制度发展的黄金时段。1978年至1982年,在司法式微的状况下,中国共产党第二代领导集体以宏大的气魄,在短短四年多时间内,大刀阔斧地完成了浩瀚的冤假错案平反任务,结束了自中华人民共和国成立以来最为激烈壮观的信访大潮,之后迅速步入健康发展阶段,国家呈现出安定祥和、人心顺畅、生机勃勃的崭新局面。威海市以中共中央和国家相关法规政策为指导,信访工作卓有成效。第三章总结了20世纪90年代信访工作的特点:表现为中国共产党第三代领导集体信访观的形成与指导、以《信访条例》出台为主要标志的信访法治化建设初见成效、信访机构力量的强化以及各级政府为克服过大的信访量使出了浑身解数,所做的全方位探索可谓百家争鸣。第四章分析新世纪之初的信访高潮及其应对措施;梳理了全国和威海区域通过努力探索而取得的可贵经验,如影响比较大的贵阳模式、义马经验等。对2005年《信访条例》出台背景、特点与局限进行了比较深入的剖析;总结了威海市信访的基本特点和信访工作特点。论文末章对若干信访理论问题作了比较集中的探讨,对信访工作如何实现良性运行进行了比较系统的思考,譬如信访制度的定位;信访问题多发根源;信访与复议、仲裁、诉讼等相关制度的比较;对市域外信访动态的分析;信访参与诸方的博弈;信访制度内的人治法治关系等。对这些问题的透彻理解、研究和阐释,是达到解决信访难题之目的的奠基性工作。作者认为,信访工作要实现良性运行,信访法治化是必由之路;实施“阳光信访”方能取信于民;创新科学的信访机制是关键环节;思想和心理劝导工作以及各类调解是信访工作不可或缺的最基本手段;注重借鉴境外的经验与做法以取长补短。本文探讨了信访演变规律,理清了三条基本脉络,即社会矛盾与信访量变化的演进脉络、信访机构及其功能的演变脉络和中国共产党三代领导集体信访观的发展脉络,提出了潜信访、信访失语、信访变异、信访博弈、信访阈值、群聚力、功利行政等概念。本文运用历史唯物主义和辩证唯物主义观点研究问题;运用历史研究的方法和辨证思维的方法;坚持史论结合,理论思辩与个案实证相结合;深入调查研究,用脚做学问。“解剖麻雀”式的个案实证研究是保证研究者成果质量的有效途径。本文采用比较研究和统计分析的方法,将历史与现实、国内与国外、个案与通例等进行多维比较;注重吸收其它科学研究方法,如社会学、政治学、法学、心理学等学科的研究方法;大胆探索的勇气与科学求实的精神并重,力求达到宏观、中观、微观相糅合,历史、现实、未来相统一。

【Abstract】 The system of letters and visits in China has played the important role in developing the democracy, understanding the people’s life and feeling, solving social contradictions, relieving people’s sorrow, citizen supervision and making suggestions on improving policies and work to the people’s government, etc., but the letters and visits’ contents that involved and the influence that result in has broken the designer’ original intention of the system in letters and visits of the PRC since 90’s middle in the 20th century. The high tide of community visits and the individual form more than ten years continuously for the main marking have still not fallen obviously up to now and become the main factor that affects the society harmony. It is not only the pain of parts of citizens but the secret concern to many government organs. Since entering new century especially, series of problems mutually have become the focus and the hard nut to crack of society concern increasingly. From Central committee of the CPC, the State Council of the PRC to the villages and business enterprises of the grass-roots towns, people of all social strata have beat their brains to look for the solution, the emphases on it and the finance support unprecedented, the method groping for one after another, but all these have not suppressed the situation for Increasing of total amount effectively, many people are not satisfied with the result that actualities present. Not only mistakes exist in the work practice, but the theory research is plain and simple, lacking the height and the depth that should have.This thesis puts effort in the historical and realistic investigation in all-round way, fixing attention in the special features research of individual cases, trying to clarify the history and present conditions, holding the sequence of events of letters and visits, namely how they took place exactly, how they were handled, what the experiences and lessons were, inquiring into some problems particularly, thus clarifying some misty and false but widespread and existent ideas and ways, put forward some suggestion for the decision reference.Chapter 1 reviews simply the history of letters and visits in China and Weihai before 1978. China has the feudal, semi-feudal and semi-colony social history of more than 2,000 years. For the endless ages of monarchic power, the feudal emperors talked the law into their own hands, the common people suffered injustice, consigned the hope to the emperor then, accusing somebody before the emperor become the basic mode to all ages fight for fair. Before 1949 letters and visits in Weihai presented two characteristics mainly: during the period of England’s rent Weihaiwei toughly, its administration superior of the colonial authorities combined the Western laws with Chinese traditional cultures, obtain the certain result; after the war against Japan and Weihaiwei becoming the liberated area, people ’s intermediation launched vividly.The system in letters and visits of the PRC has some relations with the long-term system of accusing somebody before the emperor existed in Chinese histories. The 1 st generation leadership of the CPC is the one who laid solid foundation for the system and theories in letters and visits of the PRC, system is also the part of Chinese political system construction. At the time of exerting certain functions, the system also share weal and woe with the turbulent political situation more than 20 years after 1957, therefore, people can look back the experiences and the precepts of the Chinese democracy system construction.The basic standpoints chapter 2 elaborates are: it is the prime time that the system of letters and visits in China from 1978 to the end of 80’s in the 20th century. During 1978 to 1982, under the condition of judicial power on the decline, the second generation leadership of the CPC with great boldness of vision, completed the false and wrong case of extensive mission to rectify court sentence, ended the most vigorous grand view of the high tide in about four years since 1949, went into the healthy developmental stage quickly, the nation presented a peaceful, stable, animated situation. Under the leadership of the CPC and national laws and policies, the work regarding letters and visits in Weihai is fruitful.Chapter 3 discusses the characteristics of 90’s in the 20th century: take the thought in letters and visits of the third generation leadership of the CPC as our guideline, with Regulations on Letters and Visits for the main marking, the rule of law in letters and visits began to see the result and the organization power is enhancing. People’s governments at various levels have made great efforts to explore a new mechanism in order to overcome the problems, which can be said to let a hundred schools of thought contend.Chapter 4 has analyzed the tide of letters and visits since 2001 and summed up the valuable experiences and measures in China and Weihai district through the diligent quest, for example, the expensive Guiyang model, Yima experience, etc. It analyzes 2005 Regulations on Letters and Visits’ background, characteristics with shortage; sums up the basic characteristics and the work characteristics in Weihai.The last chapter has studied some problems, for example, how to let the condition maintain a good order in letter-writing and visiting, how to affirm position of the system in letters and visits; the root of source; comparing the related systems, with administrative reconsideration, litigation, mediation, arbitrates, etc.; the analysis of the dynamic state outside the city; the competition of the various participate persons; relations between the person’s role and rule of law in the system in letters and visits, etc. The very clear comprehension, explanation and research for these problems are the foundational work to attain the purpose of cracking the hard nut of letters and visits.The measures are mainly as follows: if keeping free-flowing channels for letter-writers and visitors, the rule of law and law-based administration are necessary; The implement of sunlight letters and visits" can acquire the trust of people; renovating scientific mechanism is a key link; Trying hard to persuade with mental work and all kinds of intermediations are the most basic means; Pay attention to the similar experiences and ways from abroad, can draw lessons from the advantage and make up the shortage.The thesis has put forward several concepts, such as the invisible letters and visits, no voice of letters and visits, the variant of letters and visits and permitting scope, clustered strength, the utility administration, etc., inquiring into the regulation, manage to pure three basic grains, namely the social antinomy and the evolution grain of letters and visits, the evolution of the organization and its functions, the development grain of views of the three leadership of the CPC.The thesis researches problems from the standpoint of historical and dialectical materialism; Make use of the method of the history research and the dialectical thinking; the theory of insisting history combining theory, hard thinking of theory uniting with the individual cases of substantial evidence; investigating the conditions at the grass roots, obtaining the knowledge in practice. The individual case research of "dissecting a sparrow" type is the guarantee of researcher’s result quantity. The thesis uses more research and statistics analytical methods, carry on history and the actuality, native and foreign, individual cases and generally accepted rules etc., compare at different angles; absorb other scientific research methods actively, for example, the sociology, politics, Jurisprudence, psychology etc.; lay equal stress on the courage and the scientific spirit, try hard to attain the macro, medium and tiny view mutually. History, actuality and future will unify together mutually.

  • 【分类号】D632.8
  • 【被引频次】35
  • 【下载频次】3653
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