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关于权力的制约和监督研究

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【作者】 张亚娟

【机构】 中共中央党校

【摘要】 权力制约和监督是人类政治生活的永恒主题,也是社会科学研究中的重大课题。当前,我们党和国家正处于并且还将长期处于腐败高发易发期,党和国家政权时刻面临着严峻的权力考验,权力腐败现象严重破坏了党群、干群关系,侵蚀着党执政的合法性基础,威胁着社会的长治久安。加强对权力运行的制约和监督,构筑起防范权力腐败的牢固防线是我们党的建设和国家政权建设中的一项重大历史任务,也是党和人民义不容辞的责任。在这样的时代背景下,坚持以党的十六大精神为指导,研究权力制约和监督问题是十分必要的,也是极其迫切的。 本文立足于解决中国权力制约和监督的现实问题,按照从权力制约和监督的“一般理论——西方启示——苏联经验教训——我国历史与现状——解决问题的基本思路——加强党内监督”的逻辑顺序进行布局。首先,对权力制约和监督的一般理论进行必要的分析,为后文的论述打好基础;随后对西方权力制约和监督理论和实践的发展进行了分析,目的在于从中得出一些有益的启示;又简要地评析了马列主义权力制约监督思想及其在苏联的实践,总结苏联权力制约和监督问题上的经验与教训。此后,本文回顾了新中国关于权力制约和监督问题的探索,分析了我国权力制约和监督现状中存在的突出问题及其影响因素。在此基础上,提出完善我国权力制约和监督机制的基本思路。最后,根据我国的国情特点,突出强调了党内监督在国家权力制约和监督体系中的重要地位和作用。本文由导论、正文、结束语三部分组成。 导论 主要介绍论文选题的原由,评析该课题的研究现状及其不足,介绍论文的基本思路、研究方法,概括论文中较有新意的观点。 第一章 权力制约和监督的一般理论分析。首先分析了权力的内涵及其特性,在此基础上,从人性的弱点、权力授受关系以及权力腐败的严重社会危害入手,论述了加强权力制约和监督的必要性,分析了权力制约和监督的基本内涵及其相互关系,强调要坚持制约与监督并重的方针;提出权力制约和监督活动中必须遵循六个原则,并且从积极作用和消极作用两方面论述了权力制约和监督的主要功能。 第二章 西方权力制约和监督的理论与实践。简要回顾西方分权制衡思想的发展,介绍英国、美国、法国和瑞士四种主要的分权制衡模式及其显著特点,预测了西方分权制衡理论的发展趋势:权力重心从立法权转移到行政权、分权制衡与政党制度的融合以及体制外权力约束迅猛发展;认为分权制衡理论是人类政治文明的优秀成果之一,社会主义国家应该以我为主、取其精华、弃其糟粕。

【Abstract】 In the realistic political life, the political rights exist everywhere. Thus the restricting and supervising of power has always been an eternal theme in human political life as well as a great subject in the social scientific research. At present, our party and country are facing severe power test constantly. The power corruption still remains incessant after repeated prohibition. It has ruined the good image of the Party and country in the minds of the people seriously, and destroyed the relations between the Party and the masses. Thus it corrodes the legitimacy foundation of the Party. Some experts pointed out that China will be in a corruption high-incidence season for a long time. In this case, it is very important for us to strengthen the restriction and supervision of power. After the 16th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, the question of restricting and supervising power arouses great concern of scholars. It is time for us to study the question of power’s restriction and supervision, which is very important both on theory and in practice.In contemporary China, it is of great importance to comb the thought of restricting and supervising of power in mankind’s political history conscientiously in order to absorb some successful experience from western check and balance theory and practice. Meanwhile we should summarize the experience and lessons on restriction and supervision of power of the Soviet Communist Party. And we also need to review the success and failure, gain and loss of our party and country on restricting and supervising of power. Then we should realize clearly fundamental realities of power restriction and supervision in China. Based on it, we should make great efforts to solve the outstanding problem in practice, to form the correct thinking of establishing supervising and restricting mechanism with the inner-party supervision as its core. This dissertation includes three parts such as introduction, text and concluding remarks.The introduction discusses the value of the selected title. Then it introduces and evaluates the present research situation of the selected title. On this basis, it describes the contents of the dissertation, explains main research methods used in the dissertation, and clarifies the creative points.Chapter one analyses the general theory of power restricting and supervising. Based on the analysis of power’s implication and characteristic, the weakness of human nature, the empowering and accepting of power, the serious social harm of the corruption, the chapter has expounded the necessity and importance of the power restriction and supervision. Then the chapter points out the connotation and interaction of the restricting and supervising of power. It puts forward that power restricting and supervising activity must abide by six principles such as democracy, prescription, legal system, disclosing, and fraction, checking and balancing. Finally the part describes the main function of power restricting and supervising from positive and negative sides.Chapter two is titled the theory and practice of western power restriction and supervision. The chapter reviews the development history of western fraction check andand balance theory, recommends the practical modes such as Britain, U.S.A., France and Switzerland, analyzes their remarkable characteristics, predicts the development tide of the western fraction check and balance theory in the contemporary which includes three sides. Firstly, power core shifts from legislative power to executive power. Secondly the system of fraction and check and balance integrates with political party. Thirdly the outside system power’s restriction develops rapidly. It evaluates the progressive functions and shortcomings of the western check and balance theory and practice, and also draws the conclusion that the theory is one of the outstanding achievements of mankind’s political civilization. So the socialist country must select its essence, abandon its dross.Chapter three discusses the experience and the lesson of power restriction a

  • 【分类号】D262.6
  • 【被引频次】30
  • 【下载频次】2987
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